An agreement was reached on 29 September and.m on 30 September 1938, Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini and Edouard Daladier signed the Munich Agreement. The agreement was officially put in place by Mussolini, while the Italian plan was almost identical to Godesberg`s proposal: the German army was to complete the occupation of the Sudetenland by 10 October and an international commission should decide the future of other controversial territories. The Munich quotation in foreign policy debates is also common in the 21st century. [107] During negotiations on the Iran nuclear deal by Secretary of State John Kerry, a Republican representative from Texas called the negotiations “worse than Munich.” In a speech in France, Kerry himself referred to Munich for military action in Syria: “This is our munich moment.” [108] 29-30 September 1938: Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France sign the Munich Agreement, by which Czechoslovakia must cede its border and defensive regions (the so-called Sudetenland) to Nazi Germany. German troops occupied these territories between 1 and 10 October 1938. (7) There is a right to vote in and out of the transferred territories, the possibility to exercise within six months from the date of this agreement. A German-Czechoslovakian commission defines the terms of the option, examines the possibilities of facilitating the transmission of the population and resolves the fundamental issues arising from this transfer. GERMANY, the United Kingdom, France and Italy have agreed on the following conditions and conditions for compliance with this transfer and the measures that result from it, taking into account the agreement already reached in principle on the transfer of the German territory of the Sudetenland to Germany, and, through this agreement, they each take responsibility for the steps necessary to achieve it. The economic consequences of the Munich agreement will certainly be very severe for Czechoslovakia.

The loss of industries, railwayheads, knots, etc., cannot help but cause a sharp loss of trade and unemployment. There is no doubt that Czechoslovakia becomes the object of quasi-colonial exploitation for Germany. On 28 and 29 April 1938, Daladier met in London with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to discuss the situation. Chamberlain, who could not see how Hitler could be prevented from completely destroying Czechoslovakia if that was his intention (which Chamberlain doubted), argued that Prague should be called upon to make territorial concessions to Germany. The French and British leaders believed that peace could only be saved by moving the German territories of the Sudetenland out of Czechoslovakia. On his way back from Munich, Chamberlain told an excited crowd at Heston airport: “It is peace for our time” and he praised the agreement he had signed with Hitler. This was the culmination of the policy of appeasement. Six months later, Hitler stopped his promises and ordered his armies to invade Prague. Within a year, Britain and France were at war with Germany. In 1933, the head of the German government Konrad Henlein founded the German Sudetenland Party (SdP), which was “militant, populist and openly hostile” to the Czechoslovakian government and soon won two-thirds of the vote in districts with a large German population.

Historians disagree on whether the SDP was a Nazi front organization from the beginning or whether it had forged a front-line organization. [10] In 1935, the SdP was the second political party in Czechoslovakia, as German votes were concentrated on the party and czech and Slovak voices were divided among several parties. [9] Shortly after Austria`s accession to Germany, Henlein met Hitler in Berlin on 28 March 1938 and was ordered to make unacceptable demands for the Czechoslovakian democratic government led by President Edvard Bené. On 24 April, the SdP launched a series of demands on the Czechoslovakian government, known as the Karlovy Vary programme.