Dennis Gormley and Lawrence Scheinman discuss the implications of the India-US proposal. Agreement on Civil Nuclear Cooperation on the Regime on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in this Article of 2005. In addition to reversing decades of nuclear non-proliferation policy, the Bush administration`s likely agreement to share civilian nuclear technology with India could also permanently undermine missile non-proliferation policy. Under the terms of the deal, India would have carte blanche in exchange for international oversight of its civilian nuclear facilities to purchase previously limited conventional weapons, particularly Israel`s Arrow missile defense system, a program funded in part by the U.S. and backed by infusions of U.S. technology.  India has expressed interest in Arrow, but has so far been thwarted by the fact that the Arrow interceptor is a Category I rocket capable of carrying a payload of 500 kg at a range of 300 km. In accordance with the provisions of Category I of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), this has so far forced the US to prevent Israel from selling the Arrow to India. Israel is an informal “follower” of the MTCR guidelines and is expected to exercise restraint in transferring the arrow, but Israel and India have pressured Washington to make an exception to Arrow`s export to India.  “India, Japan will likely sign a nuclear deal during Narendra Modi`s visit to Japan,” The Economic Times, July 11, 2018.
1. India would separate civil and military nuclear facilities. India`s impulse – recognized by Bush – to develop its nuclear facilities is linked to its growing dependence on fossil fuels to meet its energy needs. Thus, safe and civil nuclear energy would contribute to the sustainable development of the Indian economy.  Following the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, significant improvements were introduced to improve nuclear safety. These enhancements include, but are not limited to, the addition of features to maintain significant installation safety in the event of a natural disaster; updating assessments of the potential effects of seismic events and floods; new equipment to better deal with potential damage to the reactor core; and building emergency prevention capacity. On October 1, 2008, the U.S. Congress announced the final approval of an agreement facilitating nuclear cooperation between the United States and India. The agreement is seen as a turning point in U.S.-India relations and introduces a new aspect into international non-proliferation efforts. First introduced in the joint statement by President Bush and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on July 18, 2005, the agreement cancels a three-decade-high U.S.
agreement. . . .