[86] Morarji Desai entered Gandhi`s government as Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister and attempted to limit Gandhi`s authority with senior Congress politicians. But, following the advice of his political adviser P. N. Haksar, Gandhi revived his popular appeal with a great orientation towards socialist politics. She successfully ended the Purse Privilege guarantee for former Indian kings and led a major offensive against the party hierarchy over the nationalization of Indian banks. Although the policy was rejected by Desai and India`s business community, it was popular with crowds. When Congress politicians attempted to oust Gandhi by suspending their membership in the Congress, Gandhi was authorized by a large exodus of deputies to their own Congress (R). The stronghold of the Indian freedom struggle, the Indian National Congress, had split in 1969. Gandhi continued to rule by a narrow majority. [44] Under British control, Gurdaspur District was the northernmost district of Punjab Province.

The district itself was administratively divided into four tehsils: Shakargarh and Pathankot Tehsils to the north and Gurdaspur and Batala Tehsils to the south. Of the four, only the Shakargarh Tehsil, separated from the rest of the district by the Ravi River, was allocated to Pakistan. (It was later incorporated into the Narowal district of West Punjab. [71]) Gurdaspur, Batala and Pathankot Tehsils were part of the Indian state of Eastern Punjab. The division of the district was followed by a population transfer between the two nations, with Muslims traveling to Pakistan and Hindus and Sikhs in India. Indian troops secured Jammu, Srinagar and the valley itself during the First Kashmir War, but intense fighting eased with the winter, making much of the state impassable. Prime Minister Nehru acknowledged the level of international attention to the dispute, declared a ceasefire and requested UN arbitration, failing which India would have to invade Pakistan itself, failing which it could not stop the tribal incursions. [72] The referendum never took place, and on January 26, 1950, the Constitution of India came into force in Kashmir, but with special provisions for the state. [73] However, India has not secured administrative control of all of Kashmir.

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