Under the Kyoto Protocol, 37 industrialized countries and the European Community (the 15-member European Union-15 at the time of the Kyoto negotiations) are committed to binding greenhouse gas emission targets. [29] The targets apply to the four greenhouse gases of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and two groups of gas, fluorocarbons (HFC) and hydrofluorocarbons (PFCs). [32] The six GHGs are converted to CO2 equivalents to determine emission reductions. [33] These reduction targets are in addition to industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs treated under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances. Although the long-term persistent temperatures signed up to the agreement, average temperatures in the first half of 2016 were about 1.3 degrees Celsius above the 1880 average when global records began. [26] New Zealand Climate Minister Tim Groser said the 15-year-old Kyoto Protocol was obsolete and New Zealand was “ahead” in finding a replacement for developing countries. [149] Non-profit environmental organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund have criticized New Zealand`s decision to withdraw. [150] China, India, Indonesia and Brazil were not required to reduce their CO2 emissions. The other signatory states were not required to implement a common framework or specific measures, but to achieve an emissions reduction target for which they can benefit from a secondary market for multilateral electronic loans, which are traded multilaterally.

[138] The Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) has enabled countries to host polluting industries and to buy ownership of their ecological virtues and virtues from other countries. [138] The Paris Agreement is the first legally binding universal global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. Non-land use change and forestry (LUCF) GHG emissions, reported by 122 non-annex parties in 1994 or the following year, amounted to 11.7 billion tonnes (billions – 1,000,000,000) co2-eq. CO2 was the largest share of emissions (63%), followed by methane (26%) and protogen (N2O) (11%). National communication reports often cover several hundred pages and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its weaknesses and effects of climate change. [90] National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties. Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts. Gupta et al. (2007) evaluated the literature on climate policy. They found that no relevant evaluation of the UNFCCC or its protocol has stated that these agreements will solve the climate problem or be successful.

[23] In these evaluations, it was considered that the UNFCCC or its protocol would not be changed. The Framework Convention and its protocol contain provisions for future policy measures to be taken.